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  • Of all India’s states, Bihar is the one most intimately linked to the Buddha’s life, resulting in a trail of pilgrimages which have come to be known as the Buddhist circuit. The very name Bihar is derived from the world ’vihara’, which means Buddhist monastery. The Buddhist trail begins at the capital city, Patna, where a noteworthy museum contains a collection of Hindu and Buddhist sculptures. The Khuda Baksh Oriental Library has rare Muslim manuscripts including some from the University of Cordoba in Spain. 40 km away, Vaishali was the site for the second Buddhist Council as the presence of ruins testify. 90 km south of Patna is Nalanda which translates as ’the place that confers the lotus’ (of spiritual knowledge). A monastic university flourished here from the 5th to the 11th century. It is said to have contained nine million books, with 2,000 teachers to impart knowledge to 10,000 students who came from all over the Buddhist world. Lord Buddha himself taught here and Hieun Tsang, the 7th century Chinese traveller, was a student. Ongoing excavations have uncovered temples, monasteries and lecture halls.

    Rajgir, ‘the royal palace’, 12 km south, was the venue for the first Buddhist Council. The Buddha spent five years at Rajgir after having attained enlightenment, and many of the remains at Rajgir commemorate various incidents, the hill of Gridhrakuta being perhaps the most important, as this is where the Buddha delivered most of his sermons. Bodhgaya is the spot where Lord Buddha attained enlightenment, with the Mahabodhi Temple marking the precise location. Bihar’s Buddhist circuit has modest back-up facilities by way of accommodation, international dining and surface transport. (For those interested in the Buddhist circuit, it may be worthwhile to note that Sarnath, in Uttar Pradesh, close to Varanasi, is an important part of the circuit, and has been beautifully developed. Besides the excavated sites, a museum here houses several Buddhist icons, among them the Ashoka Lion, India’s national emblem).


    Patna once called Pataliputra the capital of Bihar,is among the world's oldest capital cities with unbroken history of many centuries as imperial metropolis.

    A very fertile arched stretch of land along the bank of the Ganga, the history and heritage of modern day Patna go back well over two millennia. Like Delhi, Patna too had been the regal seat of governance for successive kingdoms since ancient times. And to this day, it is the capital city of the state. As each ruler ascended in power and established dynastic glory, he gave his capital a new name. Thus the ancient Kusumpura metamorphosed through Pushpapura, Pataliputra, Azeemabad and now into Patna, a continuous history ranging from 6th century BC to present times – a record claimed by few cities in the world. It was Ajatshatru the Magadha king who first built a small fort in Pataligram on the bank of the Ganga in 6th century BC, which later blossomed into the ancient glory still to be seen in the neighbouring archaeological sites at Kumrahar. Bhiknapahari, Agamkuan, Bulandi Bagh and Kankar Bagh. Pataliputra dominated the political fortunes of the whole of north India between 6th century BC and 5th century AD, a fact established by archaeological excavations. After a temporary eclipse, in 16th century Sher Shah Suri returned the city to its former glory and established the present Patna. After the decline of the Mughals, the British too found Patna a convenient regional capital and built a modern extension to this ancient city and called it Bankipore. It was in Gandhi Maidan in this area that Mahatma Gandhi held his prayer meetings.


    Archaeological findings in this area establish Patna’s claim to over a thousand years of political glory -. 600 BC to 600 AD, and then again, 16th century onwards, spanning the rule of several dynasties. Very little of this grandeur remains though, except the remnants of a huge Mauryan hall supported by 80 sandstone pillars dating back to 400 – 300 BC.

    Alarmed by the famine of 1770, captain John Garstin built this huge granary for the British army in 1786. The massive structure is 29 m high and walls 3.6 m wide at the base. The stairway winding around this monument offers a magnificent panoramic view of the city and the Ganga flowing by.

    Har Mandir Takht
    It was in Patna, far from Punjab, where Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru of the Sikhs who consolidated the warrior sect, was born in 1660. The Har Mandir Takht, one of the four sacred shrines of the Sikhs, stands at this holy site, The original temple was built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh and contains belongings of the Guru and Sikh holy texts. As a sign of reverence, it is also called Patna Sahib by the Sikhs.

    Martyrs’ memorial
    A memorial to seven freedom fighters who sacrificed their lives in "Quit India" movement of August 1942, it is a modern sculpture facing the Secretariat where they were shot in their attempt to hoist the national flag.

    Pathar ki Masjid
    Adjacent to’Har Mandir Sahib, this beautiful mosque was built by Parwez Shah, son of Jehangir, when he was the governor of Bihar. Situated on the bank of the Ganga, it is also called Saif Khan’s mosque, Chimmi Ghat mosque and Sangi Masjid.

    Sher Shah Suri Masjid
    Sher Shah Suri built this mosque in 1545 to commemorate his reign. Built in Afghan architectural style, it is one of the many beautiful mosques in Bihar and a landmark in Patna.

    Khuda Baksh Oriental Library
    A magnificent one man collection of rare Arabic and Persian manuscripts, Rajput and Mughal paintings, assortment of old books and new books from the university of Cordoba, Spain, it is one of the national libraries of India now.

    Patna museum
    The museum contains a First World War cannon, metal and stone sculpture of Maurya and Gupta periods, Buddhist sculpture, terra-cotta figures. The famous Didarganj Yakshi of 3rd century BC and a 16 m long fossilised tree are some of its special possessions.

    Jalan museum
    Built at the old site of Sher Shah’s fort, it has an excellent collection of jade, Chinese paintings, Mughal glass and silver filigree carvings. It is a private collection and visitors need prior permission.

    Sadaqat Ashram
    It is the headquarters of Bihar Vidyapeeth, a national university. India’s first President Dr.Rajendra Prasad lived here after his retirement and there is a small museum here displaying his personal belongings.

    About 29 km from Patna, Bari Dargah, is the cenotaph of the Sufi Saint Hazrat Makhdoom Yahiya Maner. The tomb of his disciple Shah Daulat is also here. It is an important pilgrimage place for Muslims during the annual urs.

    Other places of interest near Patna
    Padri ki Haveli - an 18th century catholic church.
    Biological Park – a zoo cum botanical garden.
    Patna Yoga Vidyalaya. Patna School of Yoga – famed for excellence of Yoga teaching.
    Quila House (Museum), Laxmi Narayan Temple, Pathar-Ki-Masjid, Sanjay Gandhi Biological Park, Rajendra Mueusm, Gandhi Museum.


    Maner 29 kms, Sasaram 148 kms, Sonepur 25 kms, Vaishali 56 kms, Nalanda 90 kms, Rajgir 102 kms, Gaya 174 kms, Bodhgaya 179 kms.


    Altitude : 53 metres.
    Temperature (degree C) : Summer - Max. 43, Min. 21; Winter - Max. 20, Min. 6.
    Rainfall : 120 cms.
    Clothing : Summer - Cottons, Winter - Heavy Woollens.
    Best Season : October to March.



    Vaishali today is a small village surrounded by banana and mango groves and  rice fields. But excavations in the area have brought to light an impressive historical past. The epic Ramayana tells the story of the heroic King Vishal who ruled here. Historians maintain that one of the world's first democratic republics with an elected assembly of representatives flourished here in the 6th century B.C. in the time of the Vajjis and the Lichhavis. And while Pataliputra, capital of the Mauryas and the Guptas, held political sway over the Gangetic plain, Vaishali was a rich centre for trade and industry.

    Historically important, Vaishali, on the left bank of the Gandak river, is spiritually supreme : Lord Buddha visited this place frequently and at Kolhua, close by, preached his last sermon. To commemorate the event, Emperor Ashoka, in the third century B.C. erected one of his famous lion pillars here. A hundred years after the mahaparinirvana of the Buddha - Vaishali hosted the second great Buddhist council. Two stupas were erected to commemorate this event.
    Jainism, too, has its origins in Vaishali, for in 527 B.C., Lord Mahavir was born on the outskirts of the city, and lived in Vaishali till he was 22. Vaishali is then twice blessed and remains an important pilgrim centre for both Buddhists and Jains, attracting also historians foraging for the past.


    Ashoka Pillar at Kolhua; Buddha Stupa I; Buddha Stupa II; Raja Vishal Ka Ghar; Coronation Tank; Museum; Bawan Pokhar Temple and Harikatora Temple; Miranji Ka Durgah; Kundupur (4 km).


    The Jain Prakrit Institute offers a place of study for researchers interested in Jainology and Prakrit, one of the spoken languages of Northern India in ancient times.


    Visitors must return to Patna (55 km) to undertake any excursions they may wish to organise.


    Altitude : 52 metres
    Temperature : (Max./Min.) Summer 44 Deg C/21 Deg C Winter 23 Deg C/6 Deg C
    Rainfall 120 cms
    Best Season : October to March



    Bihar has some of the most sacred Buddhist and Hindu shrines. Gaya is one of the most important pilgrimage places for the Hindus. It is believed that a Hindu will reach heaven if his last rites are offered under the celebrated ’Akshayabat’ or immortal banyan tree, standing in the yard of Vishnupad temple. Believed to be built on the footsteps of Vishnu, the grand temple was renovated by Ahalyabai, queen of Indore.

    Around Gaya

    Brahma - Yoni, Ramshila, Pretishila – beautiful hills.

    Deo – 20 km from Gaya, Surya temple here is the site of famous Chhath puja in November. Kurkihar - ancient habitation with ruins. Presumed to be the Kukkutapadagiri mentioned by Hiuen Tsang in 7th century.

    Barabar caves – 40 km from Gaya, earliest Buddhist rock cut caves. Sasaram – 123 km from Gaya, tombs of Sher Shah Suri, his father and son. There is a cave with Ashokan edicts and a Dargah on Chandan Pir Hill.

    In Pawapuri or Apapuri, 38 km from Rajgir and 90 km from Patna, all sins end for a devout Jain. Lord Mahavira breathed his last here and was cremated here. People took away not only the ashes but also the scooped out earth and thus a tank came into being. Now the famous Jalamandir marble temple stands at the site. There is another Jain temple here viz. Samosharan.

    Parasnath hill
    It is believed that 22’ tirthankars’ out of 24 attained salvation here and is one of the most sacred pilgrim centres for the Jains.

    Call of the hills

    The Chotanagpur plateau is one of the most beautiful areas in Bihar. Studded with hills 300 – 900m in altitude and covered with verdant virgin forests, this area of rivers, lakes, meadows and valleys is an ideal retreat of peace and beauty. Rich in wildlife, these forests are an anthropologist’s delight, since the ancient lifestyle of the tribes like Santhal, Ho, Munda, Oraon, Koi, Chero, Kharia, Paharia has remained essentially unaltered.

    A popular tourist resort 140 km from Ranchi. Betla National Park is nearby where gaur, chital, elephant, sloth bear, wild bear, sambar, nilgai, kakar, chinkara, mouse deer, dhole, tiger and panther can be seen. This is one of the Tiger Project Reserves. There are tree top towers, watch towers and ground level hideouts for professional photographers. February – March and October - November are the best seasons and excellent accommodation is available here.

    Damodar Valley
    Site of one of the earliest power projects, river Damodar is harnessed here in a massive network. Maithon. Panchet and Tilaiya are the major dams.

    Famous for its silk and a university town today, it has a long heritage of learning. The ruins of the ancient Vikramshila university is 42 km away. Rock cut temple at Colganj and Vishnu temple on a hill top are tourist attractions.

    The little town has nothing to show today for its long history except a Mughal fort and a temple, but it was once the capital of the ancient Anga kingdom. The British conquered Bihar in the battle of Buxar at Buxar nearby. There is a sound and light show at Buxar recounting the story of Ramayana and history of India.

    How to get there

    Gaya is an important railway junction. There are bus services from all important towns of Bihar.

    Where to stay

    Many dharamshalas, modest hotels and rest house are available.



    Bodhgaya is one of the sacred places for the Buddhists as well as for the Hindus. Here under the Bodhi Tree, Gautama attained supreme knowledge to become Budhha, the `Enlighted One'.

    "The Buddha once lived here"

    Lord Buddha the gentle colossus who founded the first universal religion of the world, worked and lived much of his life in Bihar though he was born in Kapilavastu, now in Nepal. Most of the major events of his life, like enlightenment and last sermon happened in Bihar. Significantly. the state’s name originated from ’Vihara’ meaning Buddhist and Jain monasteries, which abounded in Bihar.

    Though the Buddha was born as a Sakya prince in the Terai foothills of the Himalayas, Buddhism as a religion was really born in Bihar and evolved here through his preaching and the example of his lifestyle of great simplicity, renunciation and empathy for everything living. Perhaps the present day life of trauma and tension reminds us of the other alternative that was always available to us, the Buddha’s way of life, gentle and simple.

    Several centuries after Buddha’s passing away, the Maurya emperor Ashoka (234-198 BC) contributed tremendously towards the revival, consolidation and spread of the original religion. It is the monasteries Ashoka built for the Buddhist monks and the pillars erected to commemorate innumerable historical sites associated with the Buddha’s life, mostly intact to this day, that helped scholars and pilgrims alike to trace the life events and preachings of a truly extraordinary man.

    The Buddha attained enlightenment in Bodhgaya, under the Bodhi tree, 10 km from Gaya. the ancient Hindu pilgrimage centre. The tree from the original sapling still stands in the temple premises. It is the most important Buddhist pilgrimage centre as Buddhisrn was born here.

    The magnificent Mahabodhi temple in Bodhgaya is an architectural amalgamation of many centuries cultures and many heritages that came to pay their homage here. The temple definitely has architecture of the Gupta and later ages, inscriptions describing visits of pilgrims from Sri Lanka, Myanmar and China between 7th and 10th century AD. It is perhaps still the same temple Hiuen Tsang visited in 7th century.


    Mahabodhi Temple, Animeshlocan Chaiyata, Mohanta's Monastery, Ratnagar,  Archaeological Museum, Tbetan Monastery, Thai Temple & Monastery, International Buddhist House & Japanese Temple, Buddhist Monastery of Bhutan, The Burmese Temple, The Chinese Temple & Monastery.


    Dungeshwari 12 km, Muchalinda Lake 3 km, Gaya 12 km, Majadha University 3.2 km.


    Altitude : 113 metres
    Climate (deg c) : Summer- Max.47, Min.28; Winter- Max.28, Min.4.
    Rainfall- 186 cms ( Mid. June to Mid. September ).
    Best Season : October to March.


    Founded in the 5th centuary A.D. Nalanda is known as the ancient seat of learning. World's most ancient University lies in ruins which is 62 kms from Bodhgaya and 90 kms south of Patna. Emperor Ahoka built many monastries, temples and Viharas here.

    Though the Buddha visited Nalanda several times during his lifetime, this famous centre of Buddhist learning shot to fame much later, during 5th-12th centuries. Hiuen Tsang stayed here in 7th century and has left detailed description of the excellence of education and purity of monastic life practiced here. In this first residential international university of the world, 2,000 teachers and 10,000 students from all over the Buddhist world lived and studied here. The Gupta kings patronised these monasteries, built in old Kushan architectural style, in a row of cells around a courtyard. Ashoka and Harshavardhana were some of its most celebrated patrons who built temples and monasteries here. Recent excavations have unearthed elaborate structures here. Hiuen Tsang had left ecstatic accounts of both the ambiance and architecture of this unique university of ancient times. An international Centre for Buddhist Studies was established here in 1951. Nearby is Bihar Sharif, where an annual urs is celebrated at the Dargah or tomb of Malik Ibrahim Baya. Baragaon, 2 km away has a sun temple, famous for Chhath puja. To be visited are Nalanda museum & Nava Nalanda Mahavihar in addition to the great ruins.


    Hieun Tsang Memorial Hall, The Nalanda University Complex, Swarajpur Baragon. The Nalanda Museum (Opens 1000 to 1700 hours. Closed on Friday.)

    Lauria Areraj
    A 11.5 m high Ashokan column was erected here in 249 BC. The polished sandstone pillar has six edicts on it. The site is 30 km from Motihari.

    Lauria Nandangarh
    This site, 23 km from Bettiah and 14 km from Shikarpur, has the famous lion pillar erected by Ashoka. The 8.5 m polished sandstone column also has an edict engraved on it. Nearby there are the remains of Nandangarh Stupa, believed to contain the ashes of the Buddha.


    Bihar Sharif 13 kms, Gaya 65 kms, Bodh Gaya 50 kms, Rajgir 12 kms.


    Altitude : 67 metres.
    Temperature (deg C) : Summer- Max. 37.8, Min. 17.8; Winter- Max.27.8, Min.10.6
    Rainfall : 120 cms (June to September)
    Best Season : October to March.


    46 kms from Bodhgaya, Rajgir is sacred to the memory of the founders of both Buddhism and Jainism. Rajgir today is vestiges of a legendary and historical remains like the cyclopean wall and the marks engraved in rocks.

    Rajagriha in Patna district was the ancient capital city of the Magadha kings. The Buddha often came here to retreat at the Jivkamaravana monastery in a beautiful orchard. One of his most devoted and prosperous devotees, surgeon Jivaka also lived here. The rich merchant community here soon became the Buddha’s followers and built many structures of typical Buddhist architecture. The Buddha converted the Mauryan king Bimbisara, one of his most celebrated followers at the Griddhakuta hill, where he delivered many of his sermons as well. The Japanese have built a Stupa on top of the Ratnagiri hill, linked by a ropeway. After the Buddha reached ’parinirvana’ his followers met at the Saptaparni cave in Rajagriha, the first Buddhist Council ever held. It was here that the teachings of the Buddha were penned down for the first time. Rajgir is also an important place of pilgrimage for the Hindus and Jains. Other places to be visited are Bimbisara ka jail, Jarasandha ka akhara, Venuvana, Karand tank, Maniyar math, Swamabhandar cave, Pippala cave, Viswa Shanti Stupa, the famous hot water springs and ruins of an old fort.


    Ajatashatur's Fort, Amaravana (Mango Garden), Venuban, Bimbisara's Jail, Swarna Bhandar, Cyclopean Wall, Griddhakuta (Vulture's Peak), Saptparni Cave, Pippala Cave (Watch Tower), Jain temples, Karnada Tank, Maniyar Math.


    Bihar Sharif- 25 kms, Nalanda- 12 kms, Sawarajpur Baragaon, Gaya- 34 kms, Bodh Gaya- 50 kms, Kundalpurr- 18 kms.

    Pawapuri: 38 kms. Pawapuri is also known as Apapuri, is a sacred Jain pilgrim centre. Jalmandir, a marble temple in the centre of a big lotus tank, is the biggest attraction here. Other places of interest here are Samosaran and Naya mandir. It was here that Mahavir delivered his last sermon and was also cremated.


    Temperature (deg C): Summer- Max. 45, Min. 20; Winter- Max. 28, Min. 6.
    Rainfall : 186 cms (Mid-June to Mid-September)
    Best Season : October to March.



    Palamau has the distinction of being the forest where the world's first tiger census was enumerated in 1932. Large herds of Gaur & Chital are commonly seen. Elephants are present mostly after the monsoons upto the time when the water holes begin to dry up in March. Tiger, Panther, Sloth Bear, Wild Bear, Sambar, Nilgai, Deer are also permanent residents. Palamau National Park is now a part of one of nine tiger reserves in India under "Project Tiger".


    Area : Total Area- 1026 sq.km., Buffer Zone- 813 sq.km., Core Area- 213 sq.km., Tourist Zone- 35 sq.km.
    Established on : June 1974.
    Altitude : 300 to 1140 metres.
    Temperature (deg C): Summer- Max.47, Min.28; Winter- Max.23, Min.07.
    Best Season : October to March.
    Languages Spoken : Hindi, English.



    Galudih lies among small hills and attracts the tourist for its natural beauty with calm and quiet atmosphare. In the rainy season the hills, the jungles, the agricultural lands make Galudih green. Though the best season is July to March but actually tourist can visit Galudih throughout the year.


    Suvarnarekha River: Suvarnarekha means the golden line. One can easily take a morning-walk using station-side road to reach the river. Barrage on the river is also an another attraction here. But the most interesting venture here is to cross the river by bullock-cart to reach the hilly village on the other bank of the river.

    Satgurum: 15 kms towards the north-side of the tourist lodge its an another river here. Seven streams of the river encircle seven separate hills seven times, hence the river is named as Satgurum. Trecking to the hills through the jungle-path full of unknown trees and flowers is the best attraction here. Elephants may also be seen in the jungles.


    Tatanagar, Dimna Lake (Tatanagar), Jubili Park (Tatanagar), Burudihi Lake, Dharagiri, Jadugorar Jungle, Devi Rakshkhini Temple, Copper Mines, Ghatshila.



    32 kms from Madhupur, Giridh is now a District Town of Bihar. Regular Buses connect Giridh with Munger, Dhanbad, Bhagalpur, Koderma and other places. Usri falls is only 11 kms away from Giridh. Tongas are available as the main local transport here.



    An Important Railway Junction for Baidyanathdham Trains.

    Jugal Kishore Dharamsala - Opposite Railway Station.

    Restaurants : Dinabandhu Hotel, Janata Hotel, Railway Catering etc.

    Banks : Allahabad Bank.



    A popular Health Resort. Deoghar (55 kms) is connected by Bus.


    Haldi Jharna - 3 kms, Soikitia - 3 kms, Lattu Pahar - 2 kms.



    It is the first Dam and hydro -Electric power Station constructed by Damodar Valley Corporation across Barakar river in Hazaribag district. It is 1,200 ft.  long and 99 ft. high. It is situated in an ideal surrounding with a Reservoir  streching in 36 sq. kms. The main object is to control floods.The hydro -electric station produces only 4,000k. watt. The beautiful natural surroundings are the attraction to tourists. The main road from Barhi on G.T.road through reservoir and the hillocks is picturesque.


    Hydro. Electric Power House.
    Terrace Gardens on the hillock Deer Park.
    Picnic Island with swimming corner approachable by motor boats available on hire.



    an ancient land

    Like in many ancient civilisations Indian way of life was also clustered around its magnificent rivers. And, few rivers of the world have moulded the culture, economy and personality of the people evolving on their banks as the great river Ganga. Cutting straight across Bihar from west to east, the bounteous Ganga had made the region so fertile and plentiful that its natural prosperity nurtured to veritable fountainhead of political and cultural civilizations down the millennia. And, the unbelievable range and quantity of mineral wealth buried under the region certainly helped. To this day, the coal belt in Bihar is the mainstay of thermal energy in north India. Bihar has 41% of the total mineral wealth of India. Here, kingdom after kingdom rose and fell, leaving their indelible mark on history. Rival kings fought legendary battles, devastating the land and people. Yet, by some strange alchemy, the same land saw the birth or maturity of some of the most gentle and progressive religious teachers like the Buddha, Mahavira and Guru Gobind Singh. Then came the Muslims, ruling with panache for five centuries, to be eliminated in their turn by the ever expanding colonisation of the English, who ruled till the middle of this century. Bihar today is a quaint interface of the old and new.

    Hallowed by the footsteps of the Buddha, the fertile plains remain rich in farm lands growing paddy, cotton, sugar cane, wheat, maize, barley, jute and fruit. Bihar’s modern visage sports some of India’s largest steel and mining industries.



    Bihar has its usual assortment of rural handicrafts of hand painted wall hangings, wooden stools, miniatures in paper and leaves, stone pottery, bamboo and leather goods and appliqué work. But Bihar’s most famous indigenous art is Madhubani paintings. Originally humble expressions of the sheer creativity of the rural women, this village wall paintings now adorn gracious city homes and are exported. This art is a strict monopoly of the women of Mithila. Done in primary colours of natural origin on paper and cloth, they narrate mythological and religious events. However, the ancient designs in bright colours can still be seen on the mud walls in the districts of Champaran, Saharsa, Muzaffarpur, Vaishali, Darbhanga, Samastipur. Begusarai, Purnea, Bhagalpur and of course, Madhubani the trade centre for this unique art.



    • Hazaribagh wildlife sanctuary – 107 km from Ranchi, February - March, October - November.
    • Palamau tiger reserve - February - March, October – November. 180 km from Ranchi.
    • Lawalong wildlife sanctuary - October - June, 100 km from Gaya.
    • Mahuadanu wildlife sanctuary – November – June, 80 km from Daltanganj.
    • Dalma wildlife sanctuary –October - June, 10 km from Jamshedpur.
    • Rajgir wildlife sanctuary – October – June,102 km from Patna. -
    • Topchanchi wildlife sanctuary – October – June, close to Dhanbad.
    • Valmikinagar wildlife sanctuary - October - June, 100 km from Bettiah.
    • Gautam Buddha wildlife sanctuary – 45 km from Gaya.
    • Kabar Lake bird sanctuary – November – March, 22 km from Begusarai.


    In the true spirit of its multi religious heritage, Bihar celebrates its many religious festivals and fairs of great local appeal. Like most ancient fairs in India, Sonepur fair is also steeped in mythology and folklore. Today, it is a fantastic cattle fair, perhaps the largest in Asia. The fortnight long fair is held on the full moon day of Kartik (November) and all manners of domestic and farm animals are bought and sold.

    Buddha was born, attained enlightenment and passed away, all on the same full moon day of April/May, Thus, Vaisakhi Poornima, one of the most beautiful full moon nights in the year, is celebrated as Buddha Jayanti.

    Bihar being a holy land for the Jains as well, two major Jain festivals are celebrated here - Mahavir Jayanti at Parasnath Hill in April and Deo Deewali, which commemorates the final liberation of Lord Mahavira.

    Unique in Bihar is Chhath Puja, or worship of the sun god. Most famous one is at the sun temple in Baragaon near Nalanda, where new paddy, sweets and fruits are offered in worship. Traditional Indian festivals of Ramnavami, Dassehra, Diwali and Holi are also celebrated with great extravaganza in Bihar.

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